Within the project «Archeology, authority and community: cooperation to protect archaeological heritage» the main priority is the preservation of general archaeological heritage of border territories of Pskov region and Latvia and Estonia. In July-August 2012 the staff of Independent Non-Profit Organization «Pskov Archaeological Center» carried out the inspection of 60 archaeological monuments in Palkino district of Pskov region which again became a boundary district in 1992.
The archaeological monuments which are in the territory of Palkino district reflect the civilization history of Eastern Europe from Mesolithic period to 17th century AD. Unfortunately for the last 30 years many settlements ceased to exist, the former farmland overgrew with the wood, transport communications of local value disappeared, but the main thing which is considerably lost is the oral folk tradition that enables historical and archaeological monuments to be discovered. Under such circumstances it’s rather complicated to discover new archaeological objects which Palkino district is very rich with and those objects which would promote further studies of history of Pskov region. But nevertheless even in such conditions during their expeditions archeologists reveal new, previously unknown monuments and estimate the condition of already known archaeological objects.
One of the most interesting and most beautiful places in Palkino district is Belaya Struga lake, which together with Chyornoe and Shchadritskoye lakes, make the lake system of the glacial origin. On the east high shore of Belaya Struga lake the earliest monuments of archeology relating to late Mesolithic and early Neolithic (6000-5000 BC) have been found. Four sites of the Stone Age have been fixed according to the finds of microlites (tiny stone plates served as arrow-heads and set-in blades in bone or horn knives) and potsherds with pinched decoration. The vicinities of the lake were inhabited even at the end of 2000 BC as on the sites such objects as a paste bead, a small copper awl, pottery with banding ornament and a fragment of a stone polishing axe have been found. The separate finds relating to the Stone Age are known from near former villages Devino, Turova Gora and Gribuli, in the head of the river Struglitsa and near the village New Usitva.
From the middle to the 2nd half 1000 AD the Borohnovo hill fort was the settling center in the middle current of the river Kudeb. The excavations carried out on it were able to reveal a powerful cultural layer which contains the remains of a residential building up and fortification. Such monuments as burial grounds with long barrows near villages Bungino, Kuznechenki, Demeshi, Medvedkovo, Leshchikhino, Yarlyki, barrows on the shores of Beloye and Mogilnoye lakes, a burial ground near village Somulino, burial hills in villages Sopki and Vanino belong to the same time. With the same layer of antiquities it seems justified to connect cult objects as a worshiping stone on Veretya mountain, the stone near barrow group in Bungino and the stone with the beaten-out circles near village Kolchino. On the surface of the huge boulder located on the northern plateau of Veretya mountain a small X-shaped cross with deepening in the center is cut, and on a stone in Bungino 2 cone-shaped openings are cut. On the second stone in Bungino (which is in several meters from the first stone) on a flat surface man-made (?) flat hollows have been fixed. Folk legends are connected with these stones. The stone with the schematic image of a hoof was found near the barrow in Medvedkovo.
The ancient settlement site Kolbezhitskiy, the largest rural settlement among known in the region appeared not later than the 2nd half of 1000 AD. In the written sources of the 15th-17th centuries it is known as the Kolbezhitskiy churchyard. The total area of distribution of the cultural layer, which is more than 10 hectares, really impresses. During the excavation the fragments of hand-made smooth-wall pottery, fragments of hand-made pottery with a “textile” ornament were found and also numerous finds of the 12th–17th centuries. Besides the ancient settlement of Kolbezhitskiy in the 12th–13th centuries settlements on the place of the Smolinskiy country churchyard in Palkino, in Novaya Usitva, in Bekhterev, in Synitsy, Sopry, Medvedkovo, near villages Melnitsa, Shchadritsy, etc already existed. By 16th century the majority of settlements of the area indicated on the maps of the beginning of the 20th century were created. The centers of rural volosts (gubs) were churchyards. Besides Smolinskiy, Novousitovskiy and Kolbezhitskiy those were Lokno, Muraveyno (near modern village Rokotovo), Staraja Usitva (modern Krukovo), Chirski (modern Eremino) and Kochanova Sloboda (modern Kachanovo).
Special monuments of archeology are funeral monuments. Among the monuments of the 11th–13th centuries there are barrow burial grounds with hemispherical low mounds. The barrows containing finds of this time are known at village Gorbovo and in settlement Palkino. Not dug out burial grounds of this kind are fixed near village Zapolye (former Barza), Nosovo and Lugovitsy.
A particular type of funeral monuments are zhalnic cemeteries (mounds imposed with stones) appeared in the district of Pskov in the 2nd half of 11th century. In the territory of the area these are burial grounds near villages Krashnyakovo, Korovkino (urochishche Sebezh), Zapolye 2 (former Barza), Ponkratovo, Senchinovo (destroyed). The burial grounds weren’t investigated archaeologically therefore the time of their existence isn’t established. Zhalnichnye burial grounds are often accompanied by finds of stone crosses (in Pskov-Izborsk region they were made generally of limestone). Stone crosses aren’t always connected with burial grounds but can help to find them. As zhalnic burial grounds were often transformed into rural cemeteries, it is possible to find stone crosses «in situ» («on the place»), i.e. on modern rural cemeteries. In the territory of the district stone crosses and socket-stones have been revealed near villages Bungino, Sergino, Eliseevo, Zaytsevo, Lugovitsy, Mikhalevo, Varnitsy, Veretye, Raikhino, urochishche Sebezh, Usy, Shurpalovo, Usadishche, Harlapkovo, Sukhlovo, in Palkino settlement
Sometimes during agricultural or construction works burials having no signs on the surface of the earth are found by chance. “Soil” burial grounds are noted near Leontyevo and Belushi villages, near the churchyard Chirskoy. Such finds as twisted bracelets, spiral and lamellar rings, neck rings, breast chains with pendants and others are known from them. Soil burials were opened during archaeological investigation on the burial ground in Nova Usitva. The places called “burial grounds” are fixed near villages Mikhalevo, Filatovo (urochishche Bokatura), Ershevo, Eliseevo, and Kolchino.
The work which has been carried out in the district will become the basis for preparing articles, issuing brochures, developing tourist routes which include archaeological monuments. The materials received as a result of the district investigation will be available not only for archeologists and historians of the countries of the project participants of the but also for everyone who is interested in preserving historical and cultural heritage.
Kharlashov B. N.,
PhD, INO «Pskov Archaeological Center»